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This report seeks specifically to answer two important sets of questions that bear on the economic fortunes of black men in America:1. What share of black men have reached the middle class or higher as adults? What share are in poverty?2. What are the key institutional and cultural engines of economic success for black men in America today?
We study the sources of racial and ethnic disparities in income using de-identified longitudinaldata covering nearly the entire U.S. population from 1989-2015. We document three sets ofresults. First, the intergenerational persistence of disparities varies substantially across racialgroups. For example, Hispanic Americans are moving up significantly in the income distributionacross generations because they have relatively high rates of intergenerational income mobility.In contrast, black Americans have substantially lower rates of upward mobility and higherrates of downward mobility than whites, leading to large income disparities that persist acrossgenerations. Conditional on parent income, the black-white income gap is driven entirely bylarge differences in wages and employment rates between black and white men; there are no suchdifferences between black and white women. Second, differences in family characteristics suchas parental marital status, education, and wealth explain very little of the black-white incomegap conditional on parent income. Differences in ability also do not explain the patterns ofintergenerational mobility we document. Third, the black-white gap persists even among boyswho grow up in the same neighborhood. Controlling for parental income, black boys have lowerincomes in adulthood than white boys in 99% of Census tracts. Both black and white boyshave better outcomes in low-poverty areas, but black-white gaps arelargeron average for boyswho grow up in such neighborhoods. The few areas in which black-white gaps are relativelysmall tend to be low-poverty neighborhoods with low levels of racial bias among whites and highrates of father presence among blacks. Black males who move to such neighborhoods earlier inchildhood earn more and are less likely to be incarcerated. However, fewer than 5% of blackchildren grow up in such environments. These findings suggest that reducing the black-whiteincome gap will require efforts whose impacts cross neighborhood and class lines and increaseupward mobility specifically for black men.
This report confirms the stark differences in upward earnings mobility for black men compared to both black women and whites. It also confirms that black women, despite their solid earnings mobility, have very low family income mobility. The report then estimates the impact of racial differences in marriage rates by simulating higher marriage rates among black women: like Race and Economic Opportunity in the United States: An Intergenerational Perspective" by Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, Maggie Jones, and Sonya Porter, we find no significant effects.
This report highlights the social and economic conditions disproportionately impacting Charleston county's black population.
This report provides detailed findings about what boys and young men of color need in order to help them overcome the challenges and obstacles they face in their day-to-day lives. The report highlights the voices of young men in Oakland, New York City, Baltimore, Atlanta, New Orleans and Detroit as they opened up and shared what is on their minds and in their hearts. Among other things, the report focuses on four main areas: Values; Success and Optimal Health; Competition/Winning/Skills and Creative Talents; and Existing Resources for African-American Males.
This report, commissioned by the New York City Young Men's Initiative and developed by the Center for Innovation through Data Intelligence, provides a snapshot of where New York City's young people of color stand in relation to their peers in the areas of education, economic security and mobility, health and wellbeing, and community and personal safety. The analysis, which disaggregates data by race and gender, found that while there have been decreases in several disparities for young men and women of color, disparities persist.
This report contains compilations and calculations of various employment data for males and females 16 to 24 years old by race/ethnicity from 2005 to 2014, comparing Chicago, Illinois, the U.S. and in some instances, adding Los Angeles and New York. Besides an array of figures and tables, the report contains GIS generated maps that illustrate the relationship between employment data and population distribution by race/ethnicity. A significant contribution of this report is its demonstration that low rates of employment are spatially concentrated in neighborhoods that are also racially segregated. This report clearly highlights that youth employment rates are tied to conditions in neighborhoods and cannot be seen as distinct from what is happening in the neighborhoods themselves. The devastation of unemployment in turn, wreaks havoc on the neighborhood.
This report explores the barriers that disadvantaged youth face, particularly young men of color, and quantifies the enormous costs this poses to the U.S. economy. In particular, this report focuses on the significant disparities in education, exposure to the criminal justice system, and employment that persist between young men of color and other Americans. The report outlines why it's important for our nation -- from business, faith, and civic leaders, to local law enforcement -- to invest in the lives of our nation's young people.
This report documents the many challenges facing young boys of color, challenges that if left unaddressed, imperil their successful entry into adulthood and their ability to be flourishing, productive members of our community. In this report we also highlight what is essential for creating an environment where boys of color can thrive.
This research brief examines the economic and financial challenges facing boys and men of color and lifts up asset-building strategies that can be integrated with targeted services for this group. It also highlights successful practices that are already addressing financial challenges at a community level and draws from these practices to inform policy recommendations.
This report talks about boys and young men of color who are at risk for poor health and developmental outcomes beginning at birth and persisting through childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. As a result of household poverty and residence in segregated neighborhoods of concentrated disadvantage, they are disproportionately bombarded by environmental threats -- often without the benefits of supportive systems of prevention, protection, and care. This exposure to chronic stress undermines cognitive, social-emotional, and regulatory human development as well as the immune system. The parents of boys and young men of color are similarly affected, which affects boys directly in utero and interferes with their parents' abilities to promote their health and development and to protect them from harm as they mature.
This brief examines how family and community issues affect boys and young men of color and was prepared for the "Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and Opportunity" briefing held on June 11, 2014 in Washington, DC. The brief includes data providing the national context, promising program models, and strategies for moving forward.
This article explores the multiple approaches that foundations can use to advance racial equity, focusing on a specific set of approaches used by the Minnesota-based Northwest Area Foundation. The article also gauges the depth of the challenge that communities face in racial disparities, the long history of racialization of institutions and systems, and the evolution of the role of philanthropy in addressing poverty.
This research report presents and reviews data on poverty, education, household characteristics, and other demographic factors pertaining to the experiences of young Black and Latino males. A range of census data and census-based population estimates and projections are analyzed.
Many boys and young men of color live in communities where violence occurs too often and has a significant impact on their lives. This report examines the problem, offers strategies for various youth systems, and provides examples of approaches with strong outcomes for working with males of color who have witnessed or experienced violence.
As America becomes increasingly diverse, we cannot continue to ignore the barriers that prevent young men of color from succeeding in school. This report describes the high school dropout problem for young men of color, offers key lessons, and provides examples of successful programs.
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