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Drawing on eight years of grants data and twenty years of history, this report describes important trends in foundation funding for black men and boys. It also describes innovative philanthropic efforts in the field. While disparities faced by black males remain staggering, new partnerships and initiatives based on an assets-based approach and institutional supports may be on the cusp of turning the tide.
The My Brother's Keeper (MBK) Challenge developed by President Obama supports communities that promote civic initiatives designed to improve the educational and economic opportunities specifically for young men of color. In Oakland, California, the MBK educational initiative features the African American Male Achievement (AAMA) program. The AAMA focuses on regularly scheduled classes exclusively for Black, male students and taught by Black, male teachers who focus on social-emotional training, African-American history, culturally relevant pedagogy, and academic supports. In this study, we present quasi-experimental evidence on the dropout effects of the AAMA by leveraging its staggered scale-up across high schools in the Oakland Unified School District (OUSD). We find that AAMA availability led to a significant reduction in the number of Black males who dropped out as well as smaller reductions among Black females, particularly in 9th grade.
Achieving a diverse and inclusive workforce within P-12 education is critical to ensure that students receive a robust, quality educational experience. However, overcoming the shortage of educators of color has been a major dilemma for our nation's schools for decades. And, despite students of color comprising over 50% of current classroom populations and the United States Census Bureau's prediction that people of color will become the "majority-minority" in the overall United States population by 2043, these trends fail to correlate with representations of educators of color in P-12 education, especially for new cohorts of Black male teachers. In fact, according to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), male educators comprise only 23% of the public school workforce and, more troubling, Black male teachers represent less than 2% of the total teacher population.
Completion of higher education is of particular value to men of color. Through this achievement, they unlock their own potential, improve their career options and lifetime earnings, and enable themselves to best contribute to their families and communities. Beyond individual benefits, completing a postsecondary education is important to the overall prosperity and vitality of our nation, better enabling communities to create, innovate, sustain, and persevere. The skills and experiences acquired through the completion of a higher education degree or credential help to strengthen the nation's labor force and economic systems and contribute to every part of our national fabric. Moreover, children whose parents hold postsecondary degrees have better health outcomes and educational advantages. Often, they maintain or improve upon the economic status of their parents. So, it stands to reason that an investment in increasing the number of boys and men of color who complete higher education is an investment in our future collective and societal well-being.
The numbers tell the truth: the schools with the most need are being shortchanged the most. American history has confirmed this time and time again, even though it was supposed to be rectified with Brown v. Board of Education. Educational racism explains the fact that two dozen school districts are owed the most Foundation Aid by the state.
The authors examine the suspension rates of young black males in Sacramento County's public schools.
This report looks at the disparity in exposure to exlusionary practices faced by young men of color, specifically young black males, in San Diego County.
In 2012 and 2016, the research center I founded at the University of Pennsylvania released reports on Black male student-athletes and racial inequities in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I sports. Previous editions of this study received exten-sive coverage on ESPN as well as in The Washington Post, Sports Illustrated, USA Today, and over 500 other media outlets. This 2018 edition, published from the Race and Equity Center's new home at the University of Southern California, includes updated statistics from the 65 universities that comprise the Power Five conferences.Transparency continues to be the primary aim of this biennial publi-cation. Data presented herein concerning the overrepresentation of Black male student-athletes are unlikely to surprise anyone who has watched a college football or men's basketball game over the past three decades. Likewise, scholars who study race in inter-collegiate athletics will probably deem unsurprising my updated findings on racial inequities in six-year graduation rates. What I still find shocking is that these trends are so pervasive, yet institutional leaders, the NCAA, and athletics conference commissioners have not done more in response to them. Also astonishing to me is that it seems the American public (including current and former Black student-athletes, sports enthusiasts, journalists, and leaders in Black communities) accepts as normal the widespread racial inequities that are cyclically reproduced in most revenue-generating college sports programs.Perhaps more outrage and calls for accountability would ensue if there were greater awareness of the actual extent to which college sports persistently disadvantage Black male student-athletes. Hence, the purpose of this report is to make transparent racial inequities in the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), Big Ten Confer-ence, Big 12 Conference, Pac 12 Conference, and Southeastern Conference (SEC). Data from the NCAA and the U.S. Department of Education are presented for the 65 institutional members of these five athletic conferences. Specifically, I offer an analysis of Black men's representation on football and basketball teams versus their representation in the undergraduate student body on each campus. I also compare Black male student-athletes' six-year gradu-ation rates (across four cohorts) to student-athletes overall, Black undergraduate men overall, and undergraduate students overall at each institution.
This report is a joint publication of the Black Minds Project (an initiative of the Community College Equity Assessment Lab (CCEAL) at San Diego State University (SDSU) and the Black Male Institute at the University of California, Los-Angeles (UCLA). In this report, we present analyses of publicly available statewide data on the suspension of Black males in California's public schools.
The authors highlight community programs that promote the education and well-being of Native men and boys. The findings and recommendations capture the breadth and depth of educational experiences among Indigenous men and boys. In addition, the authors identify guiding principles that might not otherwise be included in archival data or as educational tactics, such as cultural practices (i.e., spirituality) in intervention(s), personal, and emotional influences, and other individualized details regarding educational access, persistence, and attainment.
The authors provide a scan of the academic and gray literature on the intersection of the criminal justice, mental health, and education systems, and how it influences the lives of at-risk racial/ethnic minority youth (boys and young men of color). As well, the authors identify interventions that aim to improve outcomes for racial/ethnic minority at-risk youth at the intersection of these three structural systems.
In this study, we analyze a unique set of student and teacher demographic and discipline data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine whether being matched to a same-race teacher affects the rate at which students receive detentions, are suspended, or are expelled. The data follow individual students over several years, enabling us to compare the disciplinary outcomes of students in years when they had a same-race teacher and in years when they did not.We find consistent evidence that North Carolina students are less likely to be removed from school as punishment when they and their teachers are the same race. This effect is driven almost entirely by black students, especially black boys, who are markedly less likely to be subjected to exclusionary discipline when taught by black teachers. There is little evidence of any benefit for white students of being matched with white teachers.Although these results are based on a single state, they should encourage efforts to promote greater diversity in the teaching workforce, which remains overwhelmingly white. In addition to offering more diverse role models at the front of the class, our findings suggest that employing more teachers of color could help minimize the chances that students of color, who trail their white peers in academic achievement, are also subjected to discipline that removes them from school.
This brief reviews current data and literature to understand how young men of color are faring around postsecondary preparation and success in California. We share stories from a sample of institutions— including our conversations with young men of color—to understand what practices can help young men of color succeed, and we provide recommendations for California practitioners and policymakers to ensure our P-12 and higher education systems are set up for young men of color to thrive on the path to and through college. We urge practitioners and policymakers to ensure young men of color have the supports all students need to be successful in college in addition to differentiated supports that can help young men of color overcome the additional hurdles they often confront above and beyond what most other students face.
Black primary-school students matched to a same-race teacher perform better on standardized tests and face more favorable teacher perceptions, yet little is known about the long-run, sustained impacts of student-teacher demographic match. We show that assigning a black male to a black teacher in the third, fourth, or fifth grades significantly reduces the probability that he drops out of high school, particularly among the most economically disadvantaged black males. Exposure to at least one black teacher in grades 3-5 also increases the likelihood that persistently low-income students of both sexes aspire to attend a four-year college. These findings are robust across administrative data from two states and multiple identification strategies, including an instrumental variables strategy that exploits within-school, intertemporal variation in the proportion of black teachers, family fixed-effects models that compare siblings who attended the same school, and the random assignment of students and teachers to classrooms created by the Project STAR class-size reduction experiment.
Parental incarceration leads to an array of cognitive and noncognitive outcomes known to affect children's performance in school. Therefore, the discriminatory incarceration of African American parents makes an important contribution to the racial achievement gap. Educators hoping to narrow the achievement gap should make criminal justice reform a policy priority.
This report highlights young men who are the products of high expectations. We take time to shine a spotlight on the resilient, intelligent, and caring young men across Los Angeles County. This report takes an unapologetic stance in stating that these young men who are thriving in their homes, taking on leadership roles in their schools, and making a difference in their communities. This report is not intended to be full of the doom and gloom about what is wrong with young Black and Latino men. To the contrary, we take the time to center their voices, hear their stories, and listen to their takeaways about how they have accomplished what they are doing and the recommendations that they offer on how to support other Black and Latino young men just like them.
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